Some examples of minimally invasive cardiac procedures include:
- Minimally Invasive Bypass Surgery
Bypass surgery is meant for patients with clogged coronary arteries of the heart and medications, ballooning or stenting can no longer help. It redirects the blood around a section that is blocked.
It involves taking a healthy blood vessel from the leg, arm or chest and connecting it below and above the blocked portion to provide an alternative pathway for blood to flow through. Various types of bypass surgery can now be performed using keyhole surgery which is minimally invasive.
- Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery
This deals with the mitral valve situated in the left heart chamber. When it leaks or is blocked, high pressure builds up in the left atrium, which then results in high lung pressure or irregular heart rhythm known as atrial fibrillation. The keyhole mitral valve surgery is used to access the mitral valve so that the surgeon can repair it.
- Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Surgery
The aortic valve propels blood into the aorta, the main blood vessel leaving the heart. It can deteriorate as we age and become blocked, a condition known as aortic valve stenosis, or it could also leak. Aortic valve replacement surgery can be done in a minimally invasive way through the chest to replace the valve.
- Minimally Invasive Tricuspid Valve Surgery
This is used to treat leakage of the tricuspid valve in the right side of the heart. The tricuspid valve prevents blood from flowing backwards when it is pumped out, so leakage can cause serious symptoms and result in heart failure.
- Minimally Invasive Closure of Atrial Septal Defects
The septum is the wall between the left and right sides of the heart. Some people are born with congenital heart defects such as a hole between the left and right atria of the heart, causing changes in pressures within the heart. The hole can be closed with a keyhole surgery.
- Minimally Invasive Arrhythmia Surgery (Atrial Ablation)
This uses radiofrequency-induced heat to burn and scar the inside of the heart, a technique called ablation, to help to break up some of the electrical signals that cause irregular heartbeats.
Today, many minimally invasive valve procedures can be done via the groin. They include:
- Transcatheter aortic valve replacement
Procedure to replace a diseased valve with a man-made valve.
To treat mitral valve replacement.
- Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC)
To treat mitral valve stenosis.